NIGERIAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
Journal of the Faculties of Science and Agriculture, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria
Keywords: Heavy metals, Otu-Jeremi, exchangeable bases and acidity, Western Niger Delta, crude oil spillage.
The implication of oil spillage is the degradation of land and water. Consequently, soil becomes infertile for farming and water un-potable for drinking. We investigated the impact of oil spillage on soil collected from depth of 150 cm. Soil affected and that not affected by crude oil spill from same geographical location were sampled and analyzed. Texturally, the soil is classified as fine, medium and coarse sandy and sandy loam. The sand fraction increased by 0.2% (86.174 to 86.414); silt by 53.5% (3.852 – 5.91) and clay decreased by 22.6% (9.916-7.672) when contaminated with petroleum. Physiochemical properties of pH(H20), pH(kcl), organic matter, organic carbon and nitrogen, exchangeable bases (Na+, K+, Mg+ and Ca3+), exchangeable acidity (Al3+, and H+), effective cation exchangeable capacity, phosphorus, heavy metals ( Pb3+, Fe2+, Ni+, V+, Cd3+, Cr3+ and Cu3+) were analyzed in the laboratory by standard methods and compared. The pH (H20) of the unaffected soil increased by 5.17% (5.85 to.5.00); pH (kcl) by 4.25% (4.7 to 4.50); organic matter by 264.92%; organic carbon by 356.7% and organic nitrogen by 311.19% when contaminated with petroleum. Exchangeable bases increased in values (Na+ by 80.94%, K+ by 126%, and Ca3+ by 11.75%) except Mg, whose value decreased by 65%; ECEC by 35%; P by 67.1%; exchangeable acidity by 7.83%. Heavy metals were also released into the soil upon contamination with petroleum; Pb2+ increased by 46% (1.4 to 2.044); Fe2+ by 25.96% (512.788 to 646.1); Ni+ by 19.11% (100.416 to 119.6); V+ by 80.26% (3.86 to 6.658), Cd3+ by 55% (2.772 to 4.324) and Cr3+ by 47.98% (2.528 to 3.741). There was significant positive correlation between heavy metals and pHkcl, organic matter, carbon and nitrogen.
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