Journal of the Faculties of Science and Agriculture, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria

ISSN: 1119-9008
DOI: 10.5987/UJ-NJSE


DOI: 10.5987/UJ-NJSE.17.142.1   |   Article Number: C214A2F017   |   Vol.15 (1) - November 2017

Authors:  Overare, B , Ofuyah, W.N , Emudianughe, J , Omo-Irabor, O.O , Asadu, A.N and Ominigbo, O.E

Keywords: Sedimentology, petrography, provenance, paleodepositional environment, fluvial environment.

Relying on field and laboratory evidences, outcropping sediments at Abudu and its environs were studied for their sedimentological and petrographic attributes. Based on field and sedimentological evidences, two lithofacies, sandstone and claystone were identified in the study area. The claystone facies include two (2) sub-lithofacies of silty clay and sandy clay; while the sand facies include medium to coarse-grained friable sands and, fine to medium-grained sands. Particle size analysis shows sorting values ranging from 0.94 to 2.10 indicating moderately to poorly sorted; skewness values of -0.13 to 0.2 indicating near symmetrical to positively skewed and kurtosis values in the range of 0.77 to 1.34 suggestive of platykurtosis to leptokurtosis. The petrographic analysis reveals the major framework minerals to include quartz (76.9 to 97.5%), rock fragment (0 to 12.9%) and feldspar (0 to 15.4%) and mineral maturity index (MMI) range from 3.8 to 39.0. Poor to moderate porosity was inferred for the sediments. Using field evidences and scatter plots of Skewness versus sorting and mean versus sorting, a fluvial depositional setting was interpreted for the sediments. The sediments range from sub-mature to super-mature; subarkosic to quartz arenites and sediments have undergone intense chemical weathering and/or erosion as evident in the predominance of quartz over feldspar. A craton interior source with contributions from recycled orogen is suggested for the sediments of the study area.

Acra, E.J., Etu-Efeotor, J.O., and Omoboriowo, A.O. (2013). Sedimentological Attributes and Stratigraphic Architecture of Ogwashi-Asaba Formation, Anambra Basin. Nova J. Enginee. Appl. Sci. 1(1): 1 – 10.     

Adams, A.E., Mackenzie, W.S. and Guilford, C. (1984). Atlas of Sedimentary Rocks under the Microscope. Harlow, Longman Group Ltd.

Akpofure, E. and Etu-Efeotor, J. (2013). Petrography of Ajali Sandstone in Ayogwiri-Fugar-Orame Area of Western Anambra Basin: Implication for Diagenetic and Depositional History. J. Environ. Earth Sci. 3(5): 104 -113.

Avbovbo, A.A. (1978). Tertiary Lithostratigraphy of Niger Delta. AAPG Bulletin. 62: 295 –306.

Bassey, C. and Eminue, O. (2012).  Petrographic and Stratigraphic Analyses of Paleogene Ogwashi-Asaba            Formation, Anambra Basin, Nigeria. NAFTA 63 (7-8): 247-254.

Chinotu, F.G., David, I.M.M. and Matteo, S. (2012). Planform Geometry of Modern     Tidal and Wave             Deposits in the Niger Delta: Implications for Reservoir Characterization. Nigerian Association of Petroleum Explorationists Proceedings 0f 2012 Pre-Conference Workshop and Conference. 114-116.

Dickinson, W.R., Beard, L.S., Brakenridge, G.R., Erjavec, J.L., Ferguson, R.C., Inman, K.F., Knepp, R.A., Lindberg, F.A., and Ryberg, P.T. (1983). Provenance of North American Phanerozoic Sandstone in Relation to Tectonic Setting. Geological Society of America Bulletin. 94: 222 – 235.

Dickinson, W.R. (1988). Interpreting Detrital Modes of Greywacke and Arkose. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology. 40: 695–707.

Dott, R.H. (1964). Wacke, Greywacke and Matrix: What Approach to Immature Sandstone Classification. J.  Sedimentary Petrol. 34: 625 – 632.

Friedman, G.M. (1967). Dynamic Processes and Statistical Parameters Compared for size           Frequency Distribution of Beach and River Sands. J. Sedimentary Petrol. 37:   327 – 354.

Folk, L.R. and Ward, C.W. (1957). Brazos River Bar: A Study in the Significance of Grain Size Parameters. J. Sedimentary Petrol. 27(1): 3 – 26.

Knaap, W.J. (1971). A Montane Pollen Species from Upper Tertiary Niger Delta. J.

Mining and Geol. 6: 23 – 29.

Knox, G.J. and Omatsola, E. (1989). Development of the Cenozoic Niger Delta in terms of the Escalator Regression Model. Proceedings of KNGMG Symposium on Coastal Lowlands,       Geology and Geotechnology, Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp.181-202

Moiola, R.J., and Wieser, D. (1968). Textural Parameters: An Evaluation. J. Sedimentary Petrol. 38: 45 – 53.

Nwajide, C.S. (2013). Geology of Nigeria’s Sedimentary Basins.  CCS Bookshops Limited.

Nwajide, C.S. and Hoque, M. (1985). Problem of Classification and Maturity – Evaluation of a diagnostically altered Fluvial Sandstone. Geologic on Nujibouw. 64: 67-71.

Ogala, J.E., Adaikpoh, E.O., Omo-Irabor, O.O. and Onotu, R. (2010). Granulometric  Analysis and Morphometric Studies as Indicators of Depositional Environments of the Sandstone Facies around Okanyan and Environs in the Benin Formation, Southwestern Nigeria. World Appl. Sci. J. 11(3): 245 – 255.

Omatsola, M.E. and Cordey, W.C. (1976). The Afam Formation, its Stratigraphy, Microfauna and Environment of Deposition. SPDC unpublished Report.                    

Onyeagocha, A.C. (1978). Petrography and Depositional Environment of the Benin Formation. Journal of Mining and Geology. 17, 147 – 151.

Reijers, T.J.A. (2011). Stratigraphy and Sedimentology of the Niger Delta. Geologos, 17 (3), 133-          162.

Short, K.C. and Stauble, A.J. (1967). Outline of Geology of Niger Delta. AAPG Bulletin. 51, 761-799.

Suttner, L.J., Basau, A.S. and Mack, G.H. (1981). Climate and Origin of Quartz Arenites. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology. 51, 235 – 246.

Tetyukhina, D., Luthi, S.M. and Gisolf, D. (2014). Acoustic Nonlinear Full-Waveform Inversion on an Outcrop-based Detailed Geological and Petrophyscal Model (Book Cliff, Utah). AAPG Bulletin.98            (1); 119 – 134.