Journal of the Faculties of Science and Agriculture, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria

ISSN: 1119-9008
DOI: 10.5987/UJ-NJSE


DOI: 10.5987/UJ-NJSE.17.144.1   |   Article Number: B32EAEAC19   |   Vol.15 (1) - November 2017

Authors:  Ito E.E and Ugbome I.L

Keywords: energy, Niger Delta, Gas flaring, biodiversity, global climate change.

Environmental pollution arising from gas flaring has impacted the biodiversity of Niger Delta. The main stresses relative to oil and gas operations arise from gas flaring, leakages of crude oil, and the escape of other chemicals used in production processes. This paper review highlighted the impacts of gas flaring on the biodiversity and the Niger delta environment. The negative effects of flaring on the flora and fauna of ecosystems have also been documented. The extinction of biodiversity, destruction and contamination of soil, and atmospheric pollution associated with gas flaring have not only deteriorated the environment, but also brought social impacts to the inhabitants of such area. Gas flaring has impoverished the communities where it is practiced, with attendant environmental, economic and health challenges. These difficulties faced by local communities and loss/threat to biodiversity from gas flares are sufficient justification for ending gas flaring practice. Fines by defaulting oil companies should be high enough to deter them while the gas can be processed and produced into cooking/domestic gas. 

Adole, T. (2011). A Geographic Information System (GIS) Based Assessment of the Impacts of Gas Flaring on Vegetation Cover in Delta State, Nigeria,” Master’s Thesis, Environmental Sciences University of East Anglia, Norwich.

Agbagwa, I.O., and Ndukwu, B.C. (2014). Oil and Gas Pipeline Construction-Induced Forest Fragmentation and Biodiversity Loss in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Natural Resources, 5: 698-718.

Agbagwa, I.O., and Akpokodje, E.G. (2010). Canalization and Oil Pipeline Right-of-Way Construction: A Source of Saltwater Intrusion and Freshwater Swamp Forest Biodiversity Depletion in the Niger Delta. Scientia Africana, 9: 221- 231.

Agbagwa, I.O., and Ekeke, C. (2011). Structure and Phytodiversity of Freshwater Swamp Forest in Oil-Rich Bonny, Rivers State, Nigeria. Research Journal of Forestry, 5: 66-77.

Agbagwa, I.O. (2008). Impact of the Construction of Access Roads to Oil Well Locations and Flow Stations on the Biodiversity of Some Niger Delta Floodplains. J. Appl. Sci. Res., 4: 1876-1884.

 Ajugwo, A.O. (2013). Negative Effects of Gas Flaring: The Nigerian Experience. J. Environ. Pollut. Hum. Health, 1(1): 6-8.

Ausden, M. (2007). Habitat Management for Conservation. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Ayoola, T.J. (2011). Gas flaring and its implication for environmental accounting in Nigeria. J. Sustainable Develop., 4(5): 244-250.

Bellard, C., Bretelsmeier, C., Leadley, P., Thuiller, W., Courchamp, F. (2012). Impacts of climate change on the future of biodiversity. Ecology Letters, 15: 365-377.

Davies, G.M., Legg, C.J., Smith, A. and MacDonald, A. (2006). Developing shrub fire behaviour models in an oceanic climate: Burning in the British uplands. For. Ecol. Manage., 234 (Suppl. 1): Page S107.

Dawson, T.P., Jackson S.T., House J.I., Prentice I.C., and Mace G.M. (2011). Beyond Predictions: Biodiversity Conservation in a Changing Climate. Science, 332: 53-58.

Emoyan, O.O., Akpoborie I.A., and Akporhonor E.E.  (2008). Oil and Gas Industry and the Niger Delta: Implications for the Environ. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Mgt., 12(3) 29 – 37.

Environmental Resources Managers Limited (ERML) (1997). Environmental and Social Characteristics of the Niger Delta. Phase 1: Vol. 1. A Report Submitted by Environmental Resources Managers Limited to the Niger Delta Environmental Survey (NDES), Lagos.

Haughan, P.M., Turley, C. and Poertner, H.O. (2006). Effects on the Marine Environment of Ocean Acidification Resulting from Elevated Levels of CO2 in the Atmosphere. OSPAR Commission.

Imevbore, A.A. and Adeyemi, S.A. (1981). Environmental monitoring in relation to pollution and control of oil pollution. Seminar on the petroleum industry and the Nigerian environment, 6: 135-142.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Ismail, O.S., and Umukoro, G.E. (2012). Global Impact of Gas Flaring. Energy and Power Engineering, 4: 290-302.

Ito, E.E., and Ighere, E.J. (2017). “Basic Entomology and Pest Control”. University Printing Press, Delta State University, Abraka. ISBN: 978-33772-08-12, p.361.

Ito E.E., and Ugbommeh I.L, (2017). Environmental effect of centres on the Distribution of Aquatic Insect Fauna in River Ethiope, Delta State, Nigeria. J. of Coastal Life Med. 5(11): 468-473.

Kahforoshan, D. Fatehifar, E. Babalou, A.A. Ebra-himin, A.R. Elkamel, A., and Ltanmohammadzade, J.S.S. (2008). Modelling and Evaluation of Air pollution from a Gaseous Flare in an Oil and Gas Processing Area.  WSEAS Conferences in Santander, Cantabria, 23-25 September 2008.

Kannan, R., and James, D.A. (2009). Effects of climate change on global biodiversity: a review of key literature. Trop. Ecol., 50: 31-39.

Kindzierski, W.D., (2000). Importance of human environmental exposure to hazardous air pollutants from gas flares. Environm. Rev., 8: 41-62.

Malumfashi, G.I. (2007). Phase-Out of Gas Flaring in Nigeria By 2008: The Prospects of a Multi-Win Project (Review of the Regulatory, Environmental and Socio-Economic Issues). Nig. Gas Flaring Petrol. Train. J., 4(2): 1-39.

Mantyka-Pringle, C.S., Martin, T.G, and Rhodes, J.R., (2012). Interactions between climate and habitat loss effects on biodiversity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Global Change Biol., 18: 1239-1252.

Medilinkz, Nigeria: Focus on the environmental impact of gas flaring, 2010. Retrieved from: [Accessed on 18 March, 2016].

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005). Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Biodiversity Synthesis. World Resource Institute, Washington, DC, US.

Mmom, P.C., and Arokoyu, S.B., (2010). Mangrove Forest Depletion, Biodiversity Loss and Traditional Resources Management Practices in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology, 2: 28-34.

Obioh, I. B. (1999). Environmental Impact Assessment of Emissions from Major Facilities at QIT.” Atmospheric Emissions and Dispersion Modeling. Faithlink Consults Nigeria Ltd., PortHarcourt.

Ogawa-Onishi, Y, and Berry, P.M. (2013). Ecological impacts of climate change in Japan: The importance of integrating local and international publications. Biol. Conserv. 157: 361-371.

Ohimain, E.I. (2003). Environmental Impacts of Oil Mining Activities in the Niger Delta Mangrove Ecosystem. In: Armstrong, D., de Villiers, A.B., Kleinmann, R.L.P., McCarthy, T.S. and Norton, P.J., Eds., Proceedings of the 8th International Mine Water Association (IMWA) Conference, International Mine Water Association (IMWA), Sandton, p. 503-517.

Ohimain, E.I. (2004). Environmental Impacts of Dredging in the Niger Delta; Options for Sediment Relocation That Will Mitigate Acidification and Enhance Natural Mangrove Restoration. Terra et Aqua, 97: 9-19.

Okezie, D.W., and Okeke, A.O. (1987). Flaring of associated gas in oil industry: impact on growth, productivity, and yield of selected farm crops – Izombe flow station experience. Paper presented at the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) Workshop, Port Harcourt.

Orimoogunje, O.I., Ayanlade, A., Akinkuolie, T.A., and Odiong, A.U. (2010). Perception on the effect of gas flaring on the environment. Res. J. Environ. Earth Sci. 2(4): 188-193.

Oseh, J.O., Oguamah, I.A., Oluwagbenga, O.O., and Adeyi, A.A., (2015). The Environmental Implication of Gas Flaring in Sapele Community of Delta State, Nigeria. Intl J Oil, Gas and Coal Engineering, 3(5): 56-61.

Ovuakporaye, S.I., Aloamaka, C.P., Ojieh, A.E., Ejebe, D.E., and Mordi, J.C. (2012). Effects of gas flaring on lung function among residents Gas flaring community in Delta State, Nigeria. Res. J. Env. Earth Sci., 4(5): 525-528.

Parmesan, C., and Yohe G. (2003). A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems. Nature 421: 37–42.

Pereira, H.M, Navarro, L.M, and Martins, I.S. (2012). Global Biodiversity Change: The Bad, the Good, and the Unknown. Ann. Rev. Environ. Res., 37: 25-50.

Sherry, R.A., Zhou, X., Gu, S., Arnone, III J.A., Schimel, D.S., Verburg, P.S., Wallace, L.L., and Luo, Y. (2007). Divergence of reproductive phenology under climate warming. PNAS, 104(1): 198-202.

Spalding, M., Blasco, F, and Field, C. (1997). World Mangrove Ecosystem Atlas. The International Society for Mangrove Ecosystem (ISME), Japan.

Ubani, E.C., and Onyejekwe, I.M. (2013). Environmental impact analysis of gas flaring in the Niger delta region of Nigeria. Am. J. Sci. Indust. Res., 4(2): 246-252.

Vittoz, P., Cherix, D., Gonseth, Y., Lubino, V., Maggini, R. (2013). Climate change impacts on biodiversity in Switzerland: A review. J. Nature Conserv. 21: 154-162.

World Bank (1995). Defining an Environmental Development Strategy for the Niger Delta. 1(Report No. 14266): 1-149.

Zabbey, N. (2004). Impacts of extractive industries on the biodiversity of the Niger Delta region, Nigeria. Paper presented at National Workshop on Coastal and Marine Biodiversity Management, Calabar, Cross-River State, 7–9 September.