NIGERIAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
Journal of the Faculties of Science and Agriculture, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria
Keywords: Wistar Rats., Microbiome, caffeine, nicotine
The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of nicotine and caffeine on the population and diversity of microbiome of the gut (large intestine) of adult Wister rats. Seventy-seven (77) adult Wistar rats weighing 150 to 200 g were randomly grouped into eleven (11) groups of seven rats each. Group 1 served as control, received water which was the vehicle (group 2 (caffeine 10 mg/kg), group 3 (caffeine 20 mg/kg), group 4 (nicotine from cigarette 170 mg/kg), group 5 (nicotine from cigarette 340 mg/kg), group 6 (nicotine from tobacco 170 mg/kg), group 7 (nicotine from tobacco 340mg/kg), group 8 (caffeine 10mg/kg and nicotine from cigarette 170 mg/kg), group 9 (caffeine 20 mg/kg and nicotine from cigarette 340 mg/kg), group 10 (caffeine 10 mg/kg and nicotine from tobacco 170 mg/kg), group 11 (caffeine 20 mg/kg and nicotine from 340 mg/kg)). The agents were administered each day, orally for 14 days. On the fifteenth day, chloroform anaesthetized animals were sacrificed after which the large intestine were harvested, homogenized and microbial populations cultured to assay for changes in population and diversity of the microbiome of the gut (large intestine). Results obtained showed significant increase in the bacteria population of animals administered caffeine 20 mg/kg, nicotine from cigarette 170 mg/kg, nicotine from cigarette 340 mg/kg, nicotine from tobacco 170mg/kg, caffeine 20mg/kg and nicotine from cigarette 340 mg/kg, caffeine 10 mg/kg and nicotine from tobacco 170 mg/kg as compared with the control. Bacillus sp. was present in all groups except the groups administered caffeine 10mg/kg and nicotine from cigarette 170mg/kg. Pseudomonas sp. was only observed in the group administered caffeine 20mg/kg. Staphylococcus sp. however was present in the control but was absent in the group administered caffeine 10mg/kg and nicotine from cigarette 170mg/kg, and the group administered caffeine 20mg/kg and nicotine from tobacco 340mg/kg. This study has shown that nicotine and caffeine consumption can alter the population and diversity of microbial species in the gut. This may likely influence the general health status of the consumer. Further studies in this regard are recommended
Adebayo, J.O., Akinyinka, A.O., Odewole, G. A., and Okwusichi J.I. (2007). Effect of caffeine on the risk of coronary heart disease-A re-evaluation. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 22(1): 29-32.
Armstrong, L.E., Casa, D.J., Maresh, C.M., and Ganio, M. (2007). Caffeine, fluid-electrolyte balance, temperature regulation, and exercise-heat tolerance. Exercise and Sport Science Reviews 35(3): 135-140.
Biala, G., and Weglinska, B. (2004). Calcium channel antagonists attenuate cross-sectional sensitization to the rewarding and / or locomotors effect of nicotine, morphine. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 56(8) 1021-1028.
Biedermann, L., Jonas, Z., Jessica, M., Eveline, S., Ateequr, R., Stephan J., Claudia S., Anja, F., Pascal F., Michael S., Martin, J., Loessner Stephan, R., Michael, F., Stefan S., Markus S., and Gerhard, R. (2013). Smoking Cessation Induces Profound Changes in the Composition of the Intestinal Microbiota in Humans. Plos One, 8(3): e59260 .
Cheesbrough, M. (2000). District Laboratory practice in tropical countries. Cambridge low price edition. Cambridge universal press.
Dash, S.S., and Gummadi, S.N. (2008). Inhibitory Effect of Caffeine on Growth of Various Bacterial Strains. Res. J. Microbiol., 3: 457-465.
Fisone, G., Borgkvist, A., and Usiello, A. (2004). Caffeine as a psychomotor stimulant: mechanism of action. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 61(7–8): 857–72.
Garret, B.E., Rose, C.A., and Hennigfield, J.E. (2001). Tobacco addiction and pharmacological interventions. Expert Opinion Pharmacotherapy, 2(10): 1545–1555.
Jaquet, M., Rochat, I., Moulin, J., Cavin, C., and Bibilon, R. (2009). Impact of coffee consumption on the gut microbiota: A human volunteer study. Inter. J. Food Microbiol., 130(2): 117-121
Karch, S.B. (2009). Karch's pathology of drug abuse (4th edition). BocaRaton: CRC Press. pp. 229–230. ISBN 9780849378812.
Karina, C., Montan, M.F., Bergamaschi, C.C., Andrade, E., Rosalen, P.L., and Groppo, F.C. (2008). In vitro evaluation of the effect of nicotine, cotinine, and caffeine on oral microorganisms. Can. J. Microbiol., 54(6):501-508.
Kinross, J.M., Ara, W.D. and Jeremy, K.N. (2011). Gut microbiome-host interactions in health and disease. Genome Medicine, 3:14
Macfarlane, S., and Macfarlane, G.T. (2003). Regulation of short-chain fatty acid production. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 62(1): 67–72.
Malenka, R.C., Nestler, E.J. and Hyman, S.E. (2009). Reinforcement and Addictive Disorders. A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd edition.).New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. p. 375.ISBN 9780071481274.
Pavia, D.L., Lampman, G.M. and Kriz, G. S. Jr. (1976). Introduction to organic laboratory technique, W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, pp. 50-54.
Quigley, E.M. (2013). Gut bacteria in health and disease. Gastroenterology Hepatology (N Y), 9: 560–569
Ted, W., and Norman, J.T. (2004). Beverages Nutrition and Health. Humana Press, p.172. ISBN 1588291731.
Viano, H., Weiderpass, E., and Kleihues, P. (2001). Smoking cessation in cancer prevention. Toxicology, 166(1-2): 47-52.