Journal of the Faculties of Science and Agriculture, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria

ISSN: 1119-9008
DOI: 10.5987/UJ-NJSE


DOI: 10.5987/UJ-NJSE.17.145.1   |   Article Number: 6437A40020   |   Vol.15 (1) - November 2017

Authors:  Achuba, F. I and Erhijivwo, P. O

Keywords: Abattoir waste water, cowpeas seedlings, enzyme activities, contaminated soil

The effects of abattoir waste water on the macromolecules (total sugar, protein, amino acid, beta carotene and chlorophyll) of cowpea grown on diesel contaminated soil at various concentrations (0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0%) as well as the activities of alpha amylase, starch phosphorylase and oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase activity, catalase activity and xanthine oxidase) in cowpea seedlings were investigated. The results showed that diesel imposed environmental stress in cowpea seedlings. This is indicated by the decrease in total sugar, total protein and amino acids and a decrease in the chlorophyll contents of the leaves of 12-day-old seedlings. The activities of alpha amylase and starch phosphorylase in the cotyledon of 4-day-old seedlings were inhibited by the various diesel concentrations in the control treatment, but abattoir waste water ameliorated the effect of diesel toxicity. Also, the results indicated that the petroleum product caused a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and a significant decrease in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes: Superoxide dismutase, catalase and xanthine oxidase activities in the control; but abattoir waste water ameliorated the effect of these stresses posed by the diesel contaminated soil. The following observations, therefore, suggest that abattoir wastewater is capable of remediating the undesirable effects of diesel contamination on cowpea seedlings.

Achuba F. I., and Okoh,  P. N. (2015). Effects of Petroleum Products in Soil on α-amylase,starch phosphorylase and peroxidase activities in cowpea and maize seedlings. American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 6(2): 112-120

Achuba, F.I. (2006). The effect of sublethal concentration of crude oil on the growth and metabolism of cowpea (Vigna uniguiculata) seedlings. The Environmentalists. 26:17-20.

Achuba, F.I. (2010). Spent engine oil mediated oxidative Stress in cowpea  (Vigna unguiculata) seedlings. Elect. J. Environ. Food and Agricul. Chem., 9: 910-917.

Achuba, F.I. (2014). Petrol Products in soil mediated oxidative stress in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and Maize (Zea mays) seedlings. Open J. Soil Sci., 4: 417-435.

Achuba, F.I., and Osakwe, S.A. (2003). Petroleum Induced Free Radical Toxicity in African Catfish (Clarias garieponus). Fish Physiol. Biochem. 29: 97-103.

Achuba, F.I., and Otuya, E.O. (2006). Protective influence of vitamins against petroleum induced free radical toxicity in rabbit. Environmentalists 26: 295–300.  

Adam, G., and Duncan, H.J. (2002). Influence of Diesel Fuel on Seed Germination. Environmental Pollution, 120: 363-370.

 Adam, G., Gamoh, K. M., Morris, D.G., and Duncan, H. (2002). Effect of alcohol addition on the movement of petroleum hydrocarbon fuels in soil. Sci. Total Environ. 286: 15-25.

Adedokun, O.M., Olutayo M., and Ataga, A.E. (2007). Effects of amendments and bioaugumentation of soil polluted with crude oil, automotive gasoline oil, and spent engine oil on the growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp). Scientific Research and Essay. 2(5): 147-149.

Agbogidi, O.M., Eruotor, P.G., Akparobi, S.O., and Nnaji, G.U. (2007). Evaluation of crude oil contaminated soil on the mineral nutrient elements of maize (Zea maize L.). J. Agr. 6(1): 188-193.

Akujobi, C.O, Onyeagba R.A, Nwaugo V.O, Odu, N.N. (2011). Protein and Chlorophyll Contents of Solanum melongena on Diesel Oil Polluted Soil Amended with Nutrient Supplements. Curr. Res. J. Biol. Sci., 3(5): 516-520.

Amakiri, J.O., Onofeghara, F.A. (1984). Effects of crude oil pollution on the germination of Zea mays and Capsicum frutescens. Environ. Pollut. 35: 159-167.

Arellano, P., Tansey, K.,  Balzter, H., and Boyd, D.S. (2015). Detecting the effects of hydrocarbon pollution in the Amazon forest using hyperspectral satellite images Environ. Pollut. 205: 225-239

Asada, K. (1992). Ascorbate peroxidase a hydrogen peroxide scavenging enzyme in plants. Plant Physiology. 85: 235-241.

Ayotamuno, J.M., Kogbara, R.B., and Taleat, M. O. (2006). Bioremediation of a petroleum-hydrocarbon polluted agricultural soil at different levels of water application in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. J. Food, Agricul. Environ. 4(34): 214-217.

Bustillo-Lecompte, C., Mehrvar, M., and Quiñones-Bolaños, E. (2016). Slaughterhouse wastewater characterization and treatment: An economic and public health necessity of the meat processing Industry in Ontario, Canada. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 4: 175-186.

Clark, C.J. (2003). Field detector evaluation of organic clay soils contaminated with diesel fuel. Environmental Forensics, 4(3): 167-173.

Crapo, J.D., McCord, J.M., Fridovich, I. (1978). Preparation and assay of superoxide dismutases. Methods in Enzymology. (53): 382-393.

Dam, G., and Duncan, H.J. (1999). ‘Effect of diesel fuel on growth of selected plant species’ Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 21(4): 353.

Duxbury, A.C., and Yentsch, C.S. (1956).  Plankton pigment nomographs. J. Marine Res. 15(4): 92-101.

Ekpo, F.E., Asuquo, M.E., and Offiong, E.E. (2014). Effect of diesel oil polluted soil on proximate compositions and mineral elements of scent leaf (Occimum gratisimum) in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Inter. Res. J. Environ. Sci. 3(9):1-5.

Ekpo, F.E., Nya, E.J. (2012).  Effect of poultry manure amendments on diesel oil polluted soil on germination and growth performance of forest trees. J, Res. Environ. Sci.  Toxicol., 1(17): 195-200.

Gong, P., Sun, T.H., Beudert, G., and Hahnm, H.H. (1996). Ecological effect of combined organic and inorganic pollution on soil microbial activities, Water, Air and Soil Pollution 96:133-143.

Gupta, R.P, Gigras, H., Mohapatra, G.V., Kumar, A., Chauhan, B. (2003). Microbial amylases: A biotechnological perspective. Process Biochemistry (38): 1599-1616.

Korade, D. L., and Fulekar, M.H. (2009). Effect of organic contaminants on seed germination of Lolium multiflorumin soil. Biol. Med. 1:28-34.

Lichtenthaler, H.K. (1987). Chlorophylls and carotenoids: Pigments of photosynthetic biomembranes,’ In L. Packer and R. Douce (eds.). Methods in Enzymology. Academic Press, New York, pp. 350–382.

Lowry, O.H., Rosebrough, N.J., Farr, A.L., and Randal, R.J. (1951). ‘Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent.  Biol. Chem. 193: 265–275.

Matheyarasu, R., Bolan, N.S., and  Naidu, R. (2016). Abattoir wastewater irrigation increases the availability of nutrients and influences on plant growth and development. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 227: 253.

McEwen, Jr C.M. (1971). Monoamine Oxidase From Human Sera or Plasma. In: Colowick,S.P .and Kaplan, N.O ( Eds). Methods in EnzymoIogy . 17B:692-698.

Méndez-Natera, J. R., Roque, C., Zapata, K., and Otahola-Gómez, V. (2004). Efecto de la concentración y tiempo de contaminación deun suelo por petróleo en la germinación de semillas de maíz (Zea mays L.) cv. Himeca 95. Revista UDO Agrícola, 4: 66-71.

Misra, H.P., and Fridovich, I. (1972). The Role of Superoxide in the Auto-oxidation of Epinephrine and a Simple Assay for Superoxide Dismutase. Biochem. J., 247: 3170-3175.

Njoku, K.L., Akinola M.O., and Oboh, B.O. (2008). Growth and performance of Glycine max L(Merill) in crude oil contaminated soil augmented with cow dung. Nature and Science, 6(1): 48-58.

Nogalska, A., and Zalewska, M., (2013). The effect of meat and bone meal on phosphorus concentrations in soil and crop plants Plant Soil Environment, 59(12): 575–580.

Nwaogu, L.A., and Onyeze, G.O. (2014). Effect of chronic exposure to petroleum hydrocarbon pollution on oxidative stress parameters and histology of liver tissues of native fowl (Gallus domestics). Inter. J. Biochem. Res. and Rev., 4(3): 233-242.

Odjegba, V. J, and Sadiq, A. O. (2002). Effects of spent engine oil on the growth parameters, chlorophyll and protein level of Amaranthus hybridus L. The Environmentalist. 22: 23-28.

Ogbo, E.M. (2009). Effect of diesel fuel contamination on seed germination of four crop plants- Arachis hypogea, Vigna unguiculata, Sorghum bicolor and Zea mays. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 8(2): 250-253.

Ogbuehi, H.C., Ezeibekwe, I.O., Agbakwuru, U. (2010). Assessment of crude oil pollution the proximate composition and macro element of cassava crop in Owerri, Imo State. Inter. Sci. Res. J. 2:62-65.

Ojeniyi, S.O., Awodun, M.A., and Odedina, S.A. (2007). Effect of animal manure amended spent grain and cocoa husk on nutrient status, growth and yield of tomato. Middle-East J. Sci. Res. 2(1): 33-36.

Peretiemo-Clarke, B.O., and Achuba, F.I. (2007). Phytochemical effect of         petroleum on peanut (Arachis hypogea) seedlings. Plant Pathol. J., 6:179-182.

Racine, C. H. (1993). Long-term recovery of vegetation on two experimental crude oil spills in interior Alaska black spruce taiga. Can. J. Bot., 72: 1171–1177.

Rani, P., Meena, U.K., Karthikeyan, J. (2004). Evaluation of antioxidant properties of berries. Ind. J. Clin. Biochem., 19: 103-110.

Sharifi, M., Sadeghi, Y., and Akbar, P. (2007). Germination and growth             of six plant species on contaminated soil with spent engine oil. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech. 4(4): 463-470.

Singh, B.B., and Steinnes, H. (1976). ‘Uptake of trace element by barley in Zinc polluted soil. Soil Science 121(1): 38–43.

Smith, M. J., Flowers, T. H., Duncan, H. J., and Alder, J. (2006). Effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on germination and subsequent growth of grasses and legumes in freshly contaminated soil and soil with aged PAH residues. Environ. Pollut., 141: 519-525.

Torstenssen, L., Mikaelpell, O., and Bostenberg, C. (1998). Need of a strategy for evaluation of arable soil quality. Environ. Pollut. 27: 4-7.

Trapp, S., Kohler, A., Larsent L.C., Zanbrano, K.C., and Karlson, U. (2001). Phytotocity of fresh and weathered diesel and gasoline to willow and poplar trees. Journal of soils and sediment 1(2): 71-76.

Vavrek, M. C., and Campbell, W. J. (2002). Contribution of seed banks to freshwater wetland vegetation recovery. Louisiana Applied and Educational Oil Spill Research and Development Program, OSRADP. Technical Report Series, 0-12.

Wyszkoswski, M., Wyskowska, J., Ziolkowska, A. (2004). Effect of soil contamination with diesel oil on yellow lupine yield and macroelements content. Plant, soil and environment, 50: 218-226.

Wyszkowska, J., and Kucharski, J. (2000). Biochemical Properties of soil contaminated by gasoline. Polish J. Environ. Stud., 9(6): 476-485.

Wyszkowska, J., Kuncharski, J.. and Waldowska, E. (2002). The influence of diesel contamination on soil microorganism and oat growth.  Rostlinna Vyroba, 48:58-62.

Wyszkowski, M., Wyszkowska, J. (2005). Effect of enzymatic activity of diesel oil contaminated soil on the chemical composition of oat (Avena sativa L.) and maize (Zea mays L.). Plant, Soil and Environment, 51: 360–367.

Wyszkowski, M. and Ziolkowska, A. (2008). Effect of gasoline and diesel oil on content of organic carbon and mineral components in soil. American- Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 2(1): 54-60.

Xiao, Z., Storms, R., and Tsang, A. (2006). A quantitative starch-iodine method for measuring alpha-amylase and glutathione activities. Ann. Biochem. (6) 351-148.