Journal of the Faculties of Science and Agriculture, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria

ISSN: 1119-9008
DOI: 10.5987/UJ-NJSE


DOI: 10.5987/UJ-NJSE.17.130.1   |   Article Number: 5A50FE1B5   |   Vol.15 (1) - November 2017

Author:  Erhenhi H. A

Keywords: Polluted soil, unpolluted soil, soil pollution, plant growth

The aim of this research was to ascertain the effects of crude oil spill on agricultural soil and plant growth. The soil samples were collected from cultivated area that is not affected by spill and crude oil polluted site both in Bodo city in Gokana Local Government Area of River State and were taken to Campus II Delta State University, Abraka, Delta State. Four selected vital crops were sown on these soils to determine the plant growth response due to the presence of crude oil contamination. The unpolluted soil was used as a control as compared to the polluted one. The parameters analyzed were soil moisture content, pH, Electrical conductivity (E.C), total hydrocarbon content (THC), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen, phosphorus, zinc, lead, cadmium, nickel, chromium, sand, silt and clay. The study revealed that there were adverse effects of crude oil pollution on soil nutrients, fertility as well as plant growth and production. It was also observed that the polluted agricultural land had high concentration of zinc, lead, cadmium and Chromium that are above the limit set in the National Standard for heavy metal pollution on soil. The people’s livelihood as well as their food security is a function of the healthy state of the soil for plant production for sustainability. Therefore, it is recommended that the UNEP Environmental Assessment Report on Ogoni land should be implemented with immediate effect to ameliorate the native effects of crude oil spill on vital food crops of the Ogoni people.

Abii, T A., Nwosu, P C (2009). The Effect of Oil-Spillage on the Soil of Eleme in Rivers State of the Niger Delta Area of Nigeria. Res. J. Environ. Sci. 3(3): 316–320.

Alloway, B. J., (1995). Heavy metals in soils. 2nd. Ed. Chapman  and Hall, Glasgow, p.34.

Alvarez-Benedi, J., Munoz-Carpena, R., (2005). Soil, water,  solute process characterization. An integrated  approach.  C.R.C Press, Florida. p.538.

Arao, T., Ishikawa S, Murakam IM, (2010). Heavy metal contamination of agricultural soil and counter measures in Japan. Paddy and Water Environment, 8(3): 247-257.

Buekers, J (2007).  Fixation of cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc in soil: kinetics, mechanisms and its effect on metal bioavailability, Ph.D. thesis, Katholieke Universiteit Lueven, , Dissertationes De Agricultura, Doctoraats prooef schrift nr.

Egbe, R.E (2010). Environmental Challenges of Oil Spillage for Families in Oil Producing Communities of the Niger Delta Region. African. Umeh Press, Benin City p.485.

Ekundayo, E .O and Obuekwe, C.O (1997). Effects of an Oil spill on Soil physico-chemical properties of a spill site in atypical Displacement of Midwestern Nigeria, Environmental Assessment p.45.

Franco, N., Taketani, R.G., Rizzo, A.C., Tsai, S.M., Ururahy, A. S., Leite, S.G.F., Cunha, C.D (2010). Influence of nickel contamination on the the bacterial community and the degradation of crude oil in natural soil. Centre for Mineral Technology, Ministry of Science and Technology pp. 1-5.

John, M.K. (1992). Cadmium contamination of soil and its uptake by Oats. Environ. Sci.Technol. 6 : 555-557.

Ofunne, J.A. (1993). Regional Geography of Nigeria, West Africa and the Rest of Africa. Umeh Press, Benin City

Ogundiran, O. O.; Afolabi, T. A (2008). Assessment of the physicochemical parameters and heavy metals toxicity of leachates from municipal solid waste open dumpsite. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech., 5(2): 243-250.

Osuji, L.C, Adesiyan, S.O, Obuite, G.C (2004). Post Impact Assessment of Oil pollution in Agbada West plain of Niger Delta, Delta State.

Oyedeji, A. A., Adebiyi, A. O., Omotoyinbo, M. A., Ogunkunle C.O (2012). Effect of Crude Oil-Contaminated Soil on Germination and Growth Performance of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench—A Widely Cultivated Vegetable Crop in Nigeria. Am. J. Plant Sci., 3: 1451-1454.

Salbu, B., Rossland, B.O., and Oughton, D.H (2005). Multiple Stressor-A Challenge for the Future. Environmental Monitoring, 7(6): 539.

Shiowatana,  J.,  McLaren, R., Chanmekha, G. N.,  and Samphao, A (2001).  “Fractionation of arsenic in soil by a continuous-flow sequential extraction method,” Journal of Environmental Quality, 30(6): 1940–1949.

USEPA (1996). Report: recent Developments for In Situ Treatment of Metals contaminated Soils, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.