Journal of the Faculties of Science and Agriculture, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria

ISSN: 1119-9008
DOI: 10.5987/UJ-NJSE


DOI: 10.5987/UJ-NJSE.17.135.1   |   Article Number: 260B7FCC10   |   Vol.15 (1) - November 2017

Authors:  Ayoku D. Bridget , Osuji C. Leo and Onojake C. Mudiaga

Keywords: 96 h LC50, Clarias gariepinus, dragon, sniper, kartodim 315ec

The toxic effects of dragon (A), sniper, (B) and kartodim 315ec, (C) on test specimens (Clarias gariepinus) of average weight 56.4 ± 31.1 g and length 18.5 ± 3.50 cm were examined. These pesticides have pervaded the markets, and have become common items in farms, homes, and food storage houses, hence are indiscriminately employed, mostly by rural and urban farmers and sometimes members of the society. Thus, they are potential environmental contaminants, and pose threat to the wellbeing of man and animals especially aquatic organisms. To determine their impacts in the environment, their respective acute toxicity tests were carried out according to the static non-renewable bioassay procedure. The experimental design consisted of a set of five concentrations [100, 200, 300, 400, 500 mg/L, and a control set up (0 mg/L) of pesticides A, B, and C (dragon, sniper, and kartodim 315ec respectively] with two extra replicate concentration and control for each set; in separate 30 L capacity calibrated rectangular tanks, each filled up to the 15 L mark. Each tank was distinctively labeled and loaded with 10 tests organism, making a total of 540-fish. The 96 h LC50 of pesticide B, (that is sniper) was found to be 27.0 mg/l.  The 96 h LC50 of A and C are less toxic as their respective 96 h LC50 was found to be 53.8 and 41.4 mg/l. The parameters considered include cumulative average value of operculum movement and tail beat frequency, and cumulative number of discoloration, erratic swimming, and mortality for each set of concentrations of the test substance: dragon, sniper, and kartodim 315ec respectively. The result shows that the lethal effect of the pesticides A, B, and C on the fish depends on concentration and duration of exposure to the substances as observation shows that the cumulative average number of discoloration, erratic swimming, and mortality increases with increasing concentration and exposure time, while the cumulative average of operculum movement and tail beat frequency decreases with increasing concentration and exposure time.

Adil, A. W, Sikdar-Bar, M., and Hilal, A. K. (2013). Acute toxicity of copper sulphate to Clarias gariepinus. Department of Zoology, Dr. Harisingh Gour University, Sagar (M.P), India.

Annune, P.A., Hbele, S.O., and Oladimeji, A.A. (1994). acute Toxicity of Cadmium to Juvenile of C.gariepinus (Tuegls) and Oreochromisniloticus (Trewavas). J. Environ. Science and Health, 29, 1357-1365.

Finney, D.J. (1971). Probit Analysis, 3rd edition. London: Cambridge University Press;

Finney, D. J. and Stevens, W. L. (1948). "A table for the calculation of working probits and weights in probit analysis." Biometrika, 35(1-2): 191-201.

Finney, D. J., Ed. (1952). Probit Analysis. Cambridge, England, Cambridge Univ. Press.

Finney, D. J. (1964). Statistical method in biological assay. 2nd ed. Hafner Publ. Comp, N.Y. p.668.

Finney, D. J. (1971). Probit Analysis. 3rd Edition. Cambridge Univ. Press: London and N.Y.

FAO (1997). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Review of the State of World Aquaculture. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 886, Rev. 1. Rome, Italy.

FAO (2000). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2000. FAO, Rome, Italy.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2002). International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides.

Hart, W.B., Douderoff, P. and Greenbank, J. (1945). The evaluation of the toxicity of industrial wastes, chemicals and other substances to fresh-water fishes. Atlantic Refining Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. p.330.

Herwig, N. (1979). Handbook of drugs and chemicals used in the treatment of fish diseases. Charles C. Thomas, Pub., Springfield, Illinois. p.272.

Hoffman, G. L. and Mitchell, A.J. (1980). Some chemicals used for fish diseases and pests, Arkansas 72160. Mimeograph. p. 8.

Hoffman, G.L. and Meyer, F. P. (1974). Parasites of freshwater fishes. THF Publ., Inc., Neptune City, New Jersey. p.224.

Kenaga, E.E. (1982). Predictability of chronic toxicity from acute toxicity of chemicals in fish   and aquatic invertebrates. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 1(4):347-348.

Kester, D.R., Dredall, I. W., Connors, D.N., and Pytokowicz, R.M. (1967). Preparation of artificial seawater. Limnol. Oceanogr. 12:176-179.

Kock, G., Triendi, M. and Hofer, R. (1996). seasonal pattern of metal accumulation in Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) from an oligitriphic Alpine lake related to temperature. Can. J.Fish. Aquat. Sci. 53:780-786.

Lichatowich, J.A., O'Keefe, P.W., Strand, J.A., and Templeton, W.L. (1973). Dev. of methodology and apparatus for the bioassay of oil. In: Proceedings of joint conference on prevention and control of oil spills. American Petroleum Institute, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, D.C. pp. 659-666.

Luskova, V., Svoboda, M., and Kolarova, J., (2002). Theeffects of diazinon on blood plasma biochemistry ofcarp (Cyprinus carpio) Acta. Vet. Bron., 71: 117-123.

Marking, L.L., and Kimerle, R.A., eds. (1979). Aquatic toxicology and hazard evaluation. Proceedings of the second annual symposium on aquatic toxicology. ASTM STP 667, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Martin, M., Hunt, J.W., Anderson, B.S., Turpen S.L., and Palmer, F.H. (1989). Experimental evaluation of the mysid Holmesimysis costata as a test organism for effluent toxicity testing. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 8: 1003-1012.

Mayer, F.L., and Hamelink, J.L., eds. (1977). Aquatic toxicology and hazard evaluation. Proceedings of the first annual symposium. ASTM STP 634, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Mason, C.F. (1991). Biology of Freshwater Pollution.2nd Edition, Longman Scientific and Technical U.K. p.351.

Mount, D.I., and Brungs, W.A. (1967). A simplified dosing apparatus for fish toxicological studies. Water Res. 1:21-29.

NIOSH, (1981-1986). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Registry of toxic effects of chemical substances (RTECS). Cincinati,OH: NIOSH.

Rahman, M.Z., Hossain, Z.M., Ellah, M.F.R., and Ahmed, G.U. (2002). Effect of Diazinon 60EC on Anabustestudineus, Chama punctatus and barbadesgomonous. Naga. The ICLARM quarterly, 25: 8-11.

Sogbesan, O.A. and Ugwumba, A.A. (2006). Bionomics evaluations of garden snail (Limicolaria Aurora Jay) meat meal in the diet of C. gariepinus (Burchell) fingerlings. Nig. J. Fisheries, 2-3(2): 358-371.

Stephen, C.E. (1977). ‘‘Methods for Calculating an LC50’’ Aquatic Toxicology and Hazard Evaluation, ASTM STP 634, American Society of Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA

United Nations Environmental Programme (1989). Estimation of the lethal Toxicity of pollutants in marine fish and invertebrates. Reference methods for Marine pollution studies, 43: 27.